Production Flow


The Norilsk and Kola Divisions mine copper-nickel sulphide ores of three grades: high-grade ores with a higher content of base and precious metals; cuprous ores with a higher copper content as compared to nickel; and disseminated ores with a lower content of all metals. The Trans-Baikal Division mines gold-iron-copper ores of the Bystrinskoye deposit.

Group ore output (mln t)

The Norilsk Division develops the Talnakhskoye and Oktyabrskoye deposits through underground mining at the Taimyrsky, Oktyabrsky, Komsomolsky, Skalisty, and Mayak Mines. The mines deploy slicing and room-and-pillar methods with the cut-and-fill system, with stopes refilled with backfill mixtures.

The Norilsk-1 deposit is developed by the Zapolyarny Mine of the Norilsk Division through open-pit and underground mining. Underground mining is carried out through sublevel caving using front ore passes and self-propelled vehicles.

In 2022, total ore production by the Norilsk Division was 18.4 mln t, up 1.0 mln t y-o-y (+6%). High-grade ore production increased by 22% (+1.3 mln t), while production of cuprous ores decreased by 4% (–0.2 mln t). Changes in ore production were planed in the mining option for 2022. Disseminated ore production decreased by 1.8% (–0.1% mln t). The year-on-year decrease in the production of disseminated ores was due to the repair of the backfilling facility at the Mayak Mine and the rescheduling of ore mining at the Zapolyarny Mine (with mining operations suspended) to process higher-grade feedstock from the Talnakhskoye and Oktyabrskoye deposits.

The Kola Division mines disseminated ores at four deposits: Zhdanovskoye, Zapolyarnoye, Kotselvaara, and Semiletka. Kola MMC uses various ore mining methods. The Zhdanovskoye and Zapolyarnoye deposits use three mining methods: gravity caving with front ore passes, sublevel caving with room-and-pillar ore removal and room-and-pillar mining. The Kotselvaara and Semiletka deposits primarily use stoping from sublevel drifts and sublevel caving. Room-and-pillar short-hole and long-hole stoping is also used on a limited scale.

In 2022, Kola MMC produced 7.0 mln t of ore (down 2% y-o-y). The decline in ore production was caused by the decrease in the regulatory requirements for reserves prepared for development and ready for extraction at the Severny Mine (shortage of self-propelled-diesel machinery, lack of spare parts and termination of aftersale support for mining equipment in Russia by Western companies due to sanctions).

The Trans-Baikal Division mines gold-iron-copper ores of the Bystrinskoye deposit through open-pit mining at the Verkhne-Ildikansky and Bystrinsky-2 mines.

In 2022, total ore production by the Trans-Baikal Division was 15.0 mln t, down 1.6 mln t y-o-y. The decline in ore production was scheduled in the mining option for 2022.

Average metal content in mined ore
Nickel (%)
Copper (%)
PGMsThe PGMs include palladium, platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, and iridium. (g/t)



  • Talnakh Concentrator, Norilsk Industrial District
  • Norilsk Concentrator, Norilsk Industrial District
  • Concentrator, Zapolyarny
  • Bystrinsky GOK, Zabaykalsky Territory
Concentrators’ throughput (mln t)

Talnakh Concentrator processes high-grade, cuprous and disseminated ores from the Oktyabrskoye and Talnakhskoye deposits to produce nickel-pyrrhotite and copper concentrates, as well as metal-bearing products. Its key processing stages include crushing, milling, flotation, and thickening. In 2022, Talnakh Concentrator increased its ore processing by 7% to 10.8 mln t.

Norilsk Concentrator processes all disseminated ores from the Norilsk-1 deposit, cuprous and disseminated ores from the Oktyabrskoye and Talnakhskoye deposits, and some metal-bearing products from Talnakh Concentrator to produce nickel and copper concentrates. Its key processing stages include crushing, milling, flotation, gravity concentration, and thickening. In 2022, Norilsk Concentrator increased its ore processing to 7.7 mln t, up 1.3 mln t year-on-year. The resulting thickened concentrates from Talnakh Concentrator and Norilsk Concentrator are transported via slurry pipelines to the metals operations of the Norilsk Division for further processing.

Concentrator in Zapolyarny processes disseminated ores from Kola MMC deposits. The concentrator produces nickel sulphide concentrate, which is then sold via third parties or partially shipped to the Norilsk Division for further processing. In 2022, the concentrator processed 7.0 mln t of ore, down 0.1 mln t year-on-year due to a decrease in ore production.

Bystrinsky GOK processes ores of the Bystrinskoye deposit into copper, iron ore and gold concentrates. Its key processing stages include crushing, milling, flotation, thickening, filtration, and end product packaging. The concentrator has two processing lines. Copper and iron ore concentrates are sold via third parties, while gold concentrates are further processed at the Norilsk Division. In 2022, Bystrinsky GOK processed 10.6 mln t of ore, up 0.13 mln t year-on-year. Metallurgy and refining.

Metals recovery in concentration across the Group
Nickel (%)
Copper (%)
PGMs (g/t)

Smelting and refining

Downstream facilities

  • Nadezhda Metallurgical Plant, Norilsk Industrial District
  • Copper Plant, Norilsk Industrial District
  • Metallurgical shop of Copper Plant, Norilsk Industrial District
  • Chemical and metallurgical shop, Monchegorsk
  • Refining shop, Monchegorsk
  • Nickel tankhouse, Monchegorsk
  • Nickel refinery, Harjavalta

Production chain

Norilsk Division

The produced nickel concentrates, including steam-cured sulphide concentrateHydrometallurgical product. , secondary materials and metal-bearing feed from Kola MMC, are fed into flash smelting furnaces at Nadezhda Metallurgical Plant. The matte produced in flash smelting furnaces is then converted into high-grade converter matte.

Copper Plant processes all of the copper concentrate from the Company’s concentrators, metal-bearing products from Kola MMC and copper cake from Norilsk Nickel Harjavalta to obtain copper cathodes, elemental sulphur and sulphuric acid for the operational needs of the Norilsk Division. Copper Plant’s metallurgical shop recycles sludge from the copper tankhouses of Copper Plant to produce precious metal concentrates, commercial selenium and tellurium.

Kola Division (Kola MMC)

Kola MMC’s refining facilities in Monchegorsk refine converter matte from the Norilsk DivisionThe production and processing of own converter matte has been discontinued following the shutdown of the smelting shop in December 2020.. Converter matte is crushed, milled and separated into copper and nickel concentrates by flotation, while part of the converter matte after crushing is immediately sent for processing to Norilsk Nickel Harjavalta. The resulting copper concentrate is sent to the Norilsk Division’s Copper Plant. The nickel concentrate flow is then separated, with some of it after magnetic separation and recovery of precious metals sent to Norilsk Nickel Harjavalta for further processing. The remaining nickel concentrate is processed at the roasting and electric furnace sections to produce tube furnace nickel powder, anodes and granulated nickel alloy. Anodes are processed using the conventional electrorefining technology at Tankhouse 1 to produce cathodes. Tube furnace nickel powder is processed at Tankhouse 2 using a new technology involving leaching plus electrowinning to produce cathodes. The granulated nickel alloy is processed at the nickel carbonyl section to produce pellets and powder.

The production of nickel cathodes at Tankhouse 1 and Tankhouse 2 results in semi-finished products with a high content of precious metals. These semi-products are processed at the chemical and metallurgical shop to produce precious metal concentrates. The production of nickel cathodes at Tankhouse 1 and Tankhouse 2 also generates primary cobalt cake, which is used by the cobalt section to produce saleable cobalt concentrate and cobalt cathodes.

Norilsk Nickel Harjavalta

Norilsk Nickel Harjavalta uses sulphuric acid leaching with high metal recovery rates – above 98%. The refinery processes nickel feedstock (matte and crushed converter matte) supplied by Kola MMC and small amounts of feedstocks purchased from third parties (nickel salts). Once leached, copper cake is sent to the Norilsk Division or sold to third parties, while purified nickel solutions are sent for further processing to produce nickel cathodes, nickel briquettes, powder, salts, as well as salts and solutions of cobalt.

Precious metals produced by Nornickel are refined under tolling agreements at Krastsvetmet, Urals’ Innovative Technologies and Prioksky Plant of Non-ferrous Metals.

Metals recovery in smelting (%)


Finished products manufactured in 2022 (percentage of the Group’s total output, %)
Production volumes by Bystrinsky GOK
Finished product output by the Group

The Group’s saleable products

Norilsk Division:

  • Copper cathodes
  • Commercial sulphur
  • Selenium
  • Tellurium ingots
  • Precious metals

Kola Division:

  • Nickel cathodes and carbonyl
  • Nickel sulphide concentrate
  • Nickel matte
  • Copper matte
  • Cobalt cathodes, cobalt concentrate
  • Precious metals
  • Sulphuric acid


  • Nickel salts, briquettes, cathodes, powders, and solutions
  • Copper cake
  • Cobalt sulphate, cobalt solutions

Trans-Baikal Division:

  • Iron ore concentrate
  • Copper concentrate